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spaceDie Codes des Lernzielkatalogs

Schweizerischer Lernzielkatalog (2002)

Clinical Pictures

Level 1 - be able to recognise or place:

The doctor does not have to be able to deal with this clinical picture, but he is supposed to have heard of it. This means that, when confronted with it in the literature or in correspondence, he can place this clinical picture and knows how to acquire more information.

Level 2 - be able to cope with in practice:

The doctor must be able to cope with this clinical picture in practice. This means, that in an actual situation he must be able to consider this clinical picture as a diagnosis. This assumes knowledge of the clinical picture. The extent of this knowledge varies according to the clinical picture, but contains at least knowledge of the presentations and complaints, and knowledge of diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. It includes knowledge of the relevant pathology, histology and epidemiology, as well as of the pathophysiology (or psychodynamics for certain psychiatric items).

D Diagnosis

The diagnosis must be made personally by means of physical examination, simple aids or additional investigation requested and interpreted by the doctor himself (e.g. chest radiograph, electrocardiogram).

For example the letter D does not apply for breast cancer, since its diagnosis requires taking and interpreting a biopsy, knowledge beyond a graduate in medicine.

Attribution of this letter requires level 2 of competence.

T Therapy

The therapy must be carried out by the doctor personally, referring to the most common therapy for an uncomplicated illness.

Attribution of this letter requires level 2 of competence.

C Case Management

The case management must be carried out by the doctor personally, referring to the most common case management for a case.

Attribution of this letter requires level 2 of competence.

E Emergency Measures

The doctor has to be able to perform primary and secondary assessment of patients and initiate emergency measures.

The letter E may be attributed even in absence of the letter D. The doctor in this case is not required to establish a firm diagnosis; he may act on a well founded suspicion.

Example: Referral to hospital in case of suspicion of bacterial meningitis

L Legal Aspects

The doctor must have knowledge of legal aspects:

  • at level 1: knowledge that a law exists
  • at level 2: knowledge of law
P Preventive Measures The doctor must be able to identify and initiate appropriate preventive measures.
G General Practice... The letter G defines a particularly relevant problem for General Practice and Outpatient Medicine.


Problems as starting points for training

Here, a problem is defined as a complex of complaints, signs and symptoms (e.g. dyspnoea) which may lead a patient to seek medical counsel. The
problem-solving goes beyond the classical exercise of establishing a differential diagnosis; it includes therapeutic, social, preventive, and other interventions. Problems were selected if:

  • They occur frequently
  • Even though the problem is rare, rapid and appropriate intervention may be life-saving.
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last update: 23. 01. 2004